Every marker plays a vital role in aiding a Cardiologist understand an individual's
risk factor or cardiac disease. Let us try to understand few markers and their role
in disease detection.
Lipoprotein (a) or Lp(a) is a lowdensity cholesterol-rich complex, made of two molecules:
lipoprotein (LDL) and Apolipoprotein [Apo(A)]. The main characteristics of Lp(a) are that it
is genetically determined and is unaffected by lifestyle changes. Elevated levels of Lp(a) are
associated with Cardiovascular diseases, stroke, atherosclerosis, heart attack, etc.
Apolipoprtein A1 or Apo A1, encoded by gene APOA1, is a major highdensity lipoprotein
with accumulated fat transport to liver. Higher levels of ApoA1 are related with lower
risk of heart attacks whereas, higher levels indicate risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular
Apolipoprotein B or ApoB, encoded by gene APOB, is associated with low and very
low-density lipoprotein as well as chylomicrons. It is produced in the intestines
(ApoB-48) and liver (ApoB-100) having the function of cholesterol movement within
the body. Higher levels of ApoB indicate higher risk of stroke or heart diseases.
Apolipoprotein B to Apolipoprotein A1
The ratio- ApoB/ApoA1 is regarded as a strong predictor of myocardial infarction
or heart attack risk.
C-reactive protein or CRP, a plasma protein synthesized by the liver aids
in infection and inflammation detection. Lower CRP levels indicate low risk of
myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases or stroke.