Detect HIV To Prevent AIDS
Posted By HealthcareOnTime Team
Posted on 2022-03-07
The virus and its victims
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has affected countries of the world and has dictated crisis in public health.
The first case was reported in the early 1980's. Today it has infected over 7 crore people worldwide and has
caused 2.5 crore deaths.' India has suffered immensely and 21 lakh people have HIV infection.
How does it infect?
Once the virus enters the human body (host) it uses the host's cellular system to hide and the immune
(defense) system cannot fight it. In the initial stages HIV does not cause harm and slowly becomes a part
of the human Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA). DNA is the genetic code that controls all the process of the
body and is important for the cells and organs to function properly. The virus in its later stages enters
every cell of the body and starts affecting the
tissues and organs of the body. The number of virus particles in these stages become very high as they
rapidly multiply in the body. It is at this point that HIV can cause Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(AIDS), a state that affects the body's immune system. Thereby making one an easy target for various
other diseases, which actually damages the body. HIV virus specially target our body's T cells; that fight
against cancer, so with HIV infection chances of developing cancer increases too.
A Threat that Spreads
This virus can transmit from one person to another in multiple ways
1. Sexual Transmission
The virus can transmit from an affected partner to the other through physical contact. Individuals are advised
to take preventive measures. It is also suggested to take appropriate prescribed preventive therapy if there
is any accidental exposure.
2. Mother to Child Transmission
The virus can be transmitted from an infected mother to the child during pregnancy, during child birth or breast
feeding. Hence, testing during pregnancy (antenatal screening), taking up surgical option to deliver the child
and formula feeding (baby food) are the recommendations in such cases.
3. Other Factors
Blood transfusion and reuse of blades, syringes are also potential risk factors causing HIV infections. It is
compulsory that blood before transfusion is tested and blades or syringes are disposed after a single use.
An eye should be kept while using any such equipment for sterility.
Diagnosis and Detection of HIV
Antibody Detection Test
Detection of HIV virus includes detection of specific Antibodies that are produced in the body to fight the
virus. The HIV 1 virus detection in particular can be done rapidly with tests taking less than 20 minutes.
Blood sample collected from the patient can be tested to obtain rapid and precise results by use of ELISA
(Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay).
HIV after entering a human host does not immediately cause the production of antibodies, under such
cases for early diagnosis, the virus detection test is done. Also, for infants who are less than 18 months
old this test is helpful.
Generally ELISA (for viral antigen detection) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique are used for this.
Think Ahead to Stay Safe
HIV virus poses a threat to life after it enters the body so, precautionary measures that stop the transmission
of virus must be taken. The primary reason for its spread in such large numbers is because the virus does not
show any symptoms in the early stages of infection . Therefore, large number of people do not go for diagnosis
and for this feature infections silently spread to many. Given the scenario that there is no absolute treatment
for patients who are diagnosed with HIV infection, early screening and testing is the only possibility to take
This World AIDS Day Know Your Status' and let's take a step to screen the virus and prevent its spread!