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Why an Anaemic Person Looks Pale and Tired?

Why an Anaemic Person Looks Pale and Tired?

Posted By Rupa Jaiswal Posted on Dec 02, 2021

Blood
Blood is a tissue containing a mixture of Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and other substance suspended in fluid called plasma. An average human body consists of more than 5 liters of blood. It is responsible for various functions that include, transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells, delivering immune cells to fight infections and formation of blood clots to reduce blood loss, regulating body temperature, etc.

Why an Anaemic Person Looks Pale and Tired?

Red blood cells
Red blood cells (RBC) are the major cells present in the blood and are known for their red color. RBCs are produced in bone marrow and lack nucleus. This makes more space for hemoglobin (oxygen-binding protein) in these cells, helping the RBC to transport more oxygen and return carbon dioxide to the lungs to exhale.

Hemoglobin (Hb)
hemoglobin is a molecule that carries oxygen from the lungs to different cells of the body. It consists of a 'Heme' molecule which contains iron and provides red color to Hb. This heme is linked to proteins called globins. Any alterations in the sequence of amino acids in hemoglobin results in abnormal hemoglobin structure formation. Abnormal or lower levels of hemoglobin causes anemia.

Anemia
The word "Anemia" comes from Greek words that mean "without blood". It is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is low. As a result, blood is unable to carry adequate amount of oxygen. Reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues produces the symptoms of anemia.

Symptoms
Fatigue
Dizziness and fainting
Dimmed vision
Loss of appetite
Pallor (Paleness)
Dyspnea (shortness of breath)

Types of Anemia
Anemia are of many types depending upon its numerous causes
Anemia From Excessive Bleeding
Anemia due to excessive bleeding is the most common type of anemia. Blood loss due to surgery, accidents or heavy menstruation, etc., can lead to reduction in iron content in the body.
Vitamin Deficiency Anemia
Vitamin B12 is important as it works along with vitamin B9 (Folic acid) to help synthesize red blood cells. Deficiency of these vitamins causes vitamin deficiency anemia. Lack of vitamins in the diet or difficulty in digestive tract to absorb these vitamins, contributes to this condition.

Iron Deficiency Anemia
Iron is crucial for bone marrow as it needs iron for the synthesis of red blood cells. Iron also helps structuring hemoglobin. If iron intake and iron storage are low or depleted, iron deficiency anemia arises. This condition usually develops slowly as it takes several months for the body's iron reserves to be used up. When depleted, red blood cell count decreases and those that are produced are abnormally small in size.

Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a hemolytic anemia (RBC's are destroyed and removed from bloodstream before completing its life span) in which abnormal sickle shaped form of hemoglobin is present in the red blood cells that reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood.

Wom ANEMIA- Why Are Woman More Affected By Anemia
Women are more affected by anemia that occurs due to various factors like excessive bleeding, and lack of iron, calcium or vitamins. Women undergo hormonal changes at different stages of life like adolescence, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. During some of these phases, there is a higher requirement of iron in the body. If this requirement is not fulfilled, conditions like iron deficiency anemia and softening of bones may occur. Oral contraceptive pills and intrauterine devices used for contraception may also induce chronic anemia by excessive bleeding. Blood loss during child birth can also contribute to anemia. Women are more prone to urinary tract infections and recurrent infections increases the susceptibility to develop anemia. Women with poor nutrition and who are negligent about their diet also suffer from anemia.

Diagnosis
Complete Blood Count Test
A simple routine blood tests that estimates the counts and relative proportion of each of the different components of blood which includes, oxygen carrying RBC's, RBC indices, hemoglobin, hematocrit, WBC's, platelets etc.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine) Test vitamin b12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells (RBC). Deficiency of this vitamin may lead to megaloblastic anemia. This test measures the level of vitamin present in the blood sample.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) Test
This test measures the amount of folic acid present in the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) by a simple blood test. Lack of this vitamin causes anemia.

Hemoglobinopathy Detectoion
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test A blood test used to measure and identify different types of hemoglobin in the blood. Abnormal types of hemoglobin could be a sign of diseases like sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, etc.
HPLC for Sickle Cell Anemia An accurate diagnosis of anemic diseases are done by identifying different structural forms of hemoglobin and also identify abnormal types of hemoglobin in newborns and pregnant women.

Serum Iron Studies
Serum Iron Test A small quantity of blood is drawn from the patient and iron is measured in the blood. This test can reveal the abnormal levels of iron present.
Total Iron Binding Capacity Test Transferrin is a protein that helps transport iron throughout the blood and to the tissues. This test measures the level of iron present in the bloodstream and also how well transferrin carries iron throughout the body.

Thyrocare offers Anemia Profile Testing for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of iron deficiency vitamin B12, serum ferritin, folate, complete hemogram using advanced and sophisticated automated technologies at highly affordable rates.

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