Celiac Disease an Imminent Peril
Posted By Rupa Jaiswal
Posted on Oct 19, 2021
Celiac Disease - An Imminent Peril
Burger, pasta, noodles, waffles, pastries and oh, pizza! All these items never fail to make your
mouth water. But what if you are intolerant to all these delicious items? Wouldn't that be a
nightmare? These food items are made from a common source, wheat, which has a protein called
as "Gluten" and if an individual comes out as gluten intolerant then that person suffers from Celiac
Disease (Celiac Disease). Wheat is the staple food of India and also the main source of gluten. How can one
avoid wheat, which is essential for day-to-day life
What is Celiac Disease and How Does it Evolve?
Celiac Disease is a lifelong autoimmune diseases disorder characterized by flattened villi (finger like projections in
small intestine) and is induced in genetically susceptible people by the ingestion of proline-rich
(amino acids) and glutamine-rich (amino acid proteins in wheat and its derivatives, barley, etc. It
was originally thought to rarely occur in childhood, but now is recognized as a common condition
that could be diagnosed at any age. Overall prevalence of Celiac Disease in India is 0.67% and 1.2% in northern
parts of India which means that there are 60 to 80 lakh patients with Celiac Disease in India. Celiac Disease results from
the interaction between gluten and immune system, genetic factors, and environmental as explained below
The entire protein component of wheat is gluten, and the fraction of gluten called as gliadin consists
of all the toxic chemicals components. Undigested molecules of gliadin remain resistant to degradation by gastric,
Amylase and intestinal brush border membrane proteases (enzyme that break down proteins) and
hence remains in the intestinal lumen even after the gluten is digested.? During intestinal infections
or when there is an increase in intestinal permeability, these undigested molecules gain entry into the
intestine which results in inflammation and damages the intestinal villi.
Celiac Disease is also influenced by genetic buildup of an individual. If the person has variant genes of HLA-DQA1
and HLA-DQB1,then the immune system reacts to gliadin proteins. This incongruous stimulation of
immune system results in abnormal inflammatory response, which damages the body's organs and
tissues and leads to the signs and symptoms of Celiac Disease.
Factors like early introduction of gluten in relation to weaning in infants can develop the risk of Ced.
The initial administration of gluten before four months increases the risk of Celiac Disease.
Certain viral infections (Reoviridae family viruses) can trigger the immune system response and
can lead to Celiac Disease.
Certain non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) can affect the immune system in a futile way and can contribute to Celiac Disease.
Any shift in microbiota have been suggested to provoke Celiac Disease.
What is the most important complication of celiac disease?
If an individual possesses Celiac Disease, it is crucial not to eat any gluten. But if an individual is untreated
or undiagnosed, and continues to eat gluten, then several complications can occur. It is a common
myth that eating small quantity of gluten will not cause any harm, but even tiny amount of gluten
intake can increase the risk of developing the complications outlined below
Celiac Disease decreases the effectiveness of the digestive system and can sometimes lead to critical lack of nutrients.
The failure of absorbing nutrients by intestine results in malabsorption
Failure to absorb Calcium and vitamin D can contribute to poor bone density
Cancers are very rare but someone with Celiac Disease has a slightly increased risk of developing cancers such as small
bowel cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, small bowel lymphoma, etc.
If someone has Ced, then the individual is most likely to develop lactose intolerance, as the body lacks
the enzyme to digest lactose found in dairy products
Celiac Disease in Pregnancy
Celiac Disease can increase the risk of complications like giving birth to an underweight baby
Irritability and Depression
How is celiac disease diagnosed?
Small intestinal Biopsy -
Doctors take samples of tissue (a biopsy) from the small intestine to check
Serological Tests -
Test antibodies called as an ti - Tissue Transglutaminase (anti-tTG). In practice, it has >85% sensitivity
and >90% specificity
Genetic Tests -
Test Human Leukocyte Antigens(HLA) to find possibilities of Celiac Disease
How do people cope with celiac disease?
Strictly adhering to a "gluten-free" diet is the mantra for healing and feeling good!
All food, drugs containing gluten must be eliminated because even small amounts can be harmful.
Further, organizations such as the Celiac India and Beyond Foundation, Celiaci Disease
Foundation, Gluten Intolerance Group, The Celiac Support Association are support
groups that can help you in managing it.
Thyrocare, provides TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE - IgA (TTG) serological test, which
is considered as the best screening method for Celiac Disease, at a very affordable price.
Book TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE - IgA (TTG) Test